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Home » Courses » Coding Basics 2 » Deeper Look: Math Operators

### Deeper Look: Math Operators

Things are starting to fall into place: let's revisit the math operators and add a few new tricks and shortcuts. After taking a deeper look at defining and assigning variables, now it's time to go for Math Operators. Learning various types of math operators is necessary for anyone who wants to develop as a programmer. We have seen all types of arithmetic operators such as +, -, *, /, but we need to know about one more very important operator to use in a number of programs. it's defined as modulo and is abbreviated with the percentile symbol %.

## Percentile (%) Operator

If we use this symbol for a and b: a%b; it divides a by b to the closest integer quotient. The remainder is left over to be part of modulo. Hence, we can say that % is the operator which gives the reminder as output provided the quotient is an integer. For example, if we have 13%2, here the best possible division that can be performed keeping the quotient to an integer value is (13/2)=(6+remainder.) We can see that the quotient can't be 6.5 because it isn't an integer value, so it's limited to 6 with a remainder of 1. Therefore, 1 is considered to be the modulus of the equation 13%2. Your turn! What is 9%4? (9/4 = 2 with a remainder of 1: the answer is 1.)

Consider another example where the dividend is an even number: 12%2;. Here, division can be performed to the fullest extent and still the quotient is an integer. Therefore, this leaves a remainder of 0, which is the final value of 12%2. This operator is very useful not only for finding the remainder but also in various programs for finding Fibonacci series, whether a number is odd or even, etc. You will understand the use of this operator more as you move forward and start utilizing it while coding.

## Incrementing and decrementing variables

Since we learned all the basic operators and their uses, we need to focus on how these operators are used in a program. We can use these operators and write the equations in the same way as we write in mathematical algebra. But there are a few shortcuts for writing math equations in programming which makes life easier for the user. Mostly we use math operators for incrementing or decrementing variables and their values, for example: i=i+1.; This will increment the value of i to i+1 before moving to the next line. When we start writing the code, we can minimize this equation and simply write i++; which has the same meaning. This is applicable for all types of operators such as i**; i- -; . Your turn! How would you easily write code to divide I by 3?

If you answered I/=3; you win that one! These are also very useful while writing the conditions for controlled loops where we can either decrement the value using i-- or increment the value using i++.

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